After the tsunami that hit northeast Japan in 2011, many were left homeless, without possessions, food or water. But even in adversity, people showed fortitude to put others’ needs before theirs. Behrens likens this to the Buddhist ethos of “gaman” which is similar to patience or endurance – to think of others rather than oneself. It was widely reported in the media that there was significantly less looting in the affected areas in Japan than has been seen in similarly devastated areas in other countries.
Likewise, in Shintoism everything, from rocks to trees, possesses a spirit. While organised Shintoism is a minority practice in Japan, omniscient objects permeate the culture. This is where Behrens’s idea that Japanese people are motivated by “fear” comes from; if you are always being watched and your natural disposition is to think of others first, it is natural that you would be bothered to hand in the lost item.
The abundance of police officers and cultural traditions that prompt people to think first of others are perhaps more enlightening than any notion that the Japanese are more honest, in the eyes of Behrens and West. In any case, if you’re walking past a kōban, it might be worth popping in to say “Hi”.
On Thursday, Feb. 24, a note appeared on indie musician Mitski’s Twitter account. “Hello!” it read. “I wanted to speak with you about phones at shows. … Sometimes when I see people filming entire songs or whole sets, it makes me feel as though we are not here together.”
It was a simple request, one that the average music fan would likely scroll by without so much as raising an eyebrow. Live music, Mitski continued, offers “the feeling of connection, of sharing a dream, and remembering that we have a brief miraculous moment of being alive at the same time.” But when her fans watch her perform live through their phone screens, she said, “it makes me feel as though those of us on stage are being taken from and consumed as content.”
feel the same，當然唔係講我上台唱歌，係覺得對手機嘅過於依賴使到人同人線下交流變得勁冇癮。熟我嘅人都知我出去嘅話好少睇手機
Currently, the most visible of Mitski’s fans tend to see her music, and by extension her persona itself, as a cathartic vehicle for their own angst, fostering deep personal connections. Mitski is acutely aware of this relationship: “I am a musician, but the reason they really pay me the big bucks is to be the place where anybody can put all of their feelings, their ugliness, that doesn’t have a place in their own lives,” she told the Guardian in February 2022. “I’m like the black hole.”
Of course, stereotyping and minimizing entire groups of fans also minimizes the complexity and humanness of the individuals that compose these groups. Still, the most visible fans are the ones who set the tone of the fandom, and in the case of the Mitski fandom, then, the artist herself has been reduced to an emotional symbol, in order to prioritize the emotional impact she has left upon the listeners. “As happens with stars, people seem to love the idea of Mitski as much as the fact of her,” wrote Jia Tolentino in a 2018 New Yorker piece. But as with other artists often considered for their image and branding over their personhood, the idea of Mitski and the fact of Mitski are two wholly separate things, and the flattening of them into one person may be what makes Mitski’s recent Twitter backlash particularly dispiriting.
In Mitski’s case, the commodification of her persona over her personhood can divert the conversation away from her music and toward arbitrary categorizations of her identity and her fans. Mitski herself has spoken out about the consequences of commodification many times. “Every day, all the time, is exploitation,” she said in a January 2022 interview with Vulture. “You can’t be a human being. You have to be a product that’s being bought and sold and consumed, and you have to perceive yourself that way in order to function.”
The consequence of all of these changes is that there is less need to emphasize calculations, and more need to focus on understanding how statistical studies are conducted and interpreted. Relevant and interesting examples are readily available. Yet many instructors have not made any changes in how they teach introductory statistics.
不能更贊同，睇睇有幾多係自己想瞭解嘅就入去睇喇，個人係比較推薦8.CONFUSION OF THE INVERSE，因為真係好容易就會冇醒起呢個，簡單嚟講就係要時刻記得係有基礎比率嘅
1. When it can be concluded that a relationshipis one of cause and effect, and when it cannot, including the difference between randomized experiments and observational studies.
2. The difference between statistical significance and practical importance, especially when using large sample sizes.
3. The difference between finding “no effect” or “no difference” and finding no statistically significant effect or difference, especially when using small sample sizes.
4. Common sources of bias in surveys and experiments, such as poor wording of questions, volunteer response, and socially desirable answers.
5. The idea that coincidencesand seemingly very improbable events are not uncommon because there are so many possibilities.
6. “Confusion of the inverse” in which a conditionalprobability in one direction is confused with the conditional probability in the other direction.
7. Understandingthat variability is natural, and that “normal” is not the same as “average.”