愛情；雙相情感障礙；Wordle；Corporate-bankrolled campaign hijacked governmental response；Scientists admit their Covid mistakes；How disgust explains everything；電影；People Have Been Having Less Sex；Water in Africa；女性；Food Delivery；latest Edelman trust survey；Face masks make people look more attractive；……
Though Wordle is now shared with the world, she said she appreciated that Mr. Wardle originally created it for her.
“It’s really sweet,” she said. “This is definitely how Josh shows his love.”
According to a recent scientific simulation, an eight-week stay-at-home order in response to the new surge could save 300,000 lives.
In the early 1980s, Rozin noticed that there was surprisingly little data available on this universal aspect of life. Odd, he thought, that of the six so-called basic emotions — anger, surprise, fear, enjoyment, sadness, disgust — the last had hardly been studied.^^^越普遍嘅嘢越難開始研究
I floss my teeth as an adult because a dentist once told me as a teenager that “Brushing your teeth without flossing is like taking a shower without removing your shoes.”^^^噁心機制確實好有用，效果超羣
Angyal argued that disgust wasn’t strictly sensory. We might experience colors and sounds and tastes and odors as unpleasant, but they could never be disgusting on their own.
Disgust, Angyal contended, wasn’t merely smelling a bad smell; it was a visceral fear of being soiled by the smell. The closer the contact, the stronger the reaction. Angyal’s study is even more delightful when viewed in the context of its preface, which explains that the material is based on observations and conversations “not collected in any formal manner,” and that the method, “if it may be called such,” lacked objectivity and control.
Disgust was unlike the other three responses in one peculiar fashion: It could be motivated primarily by ideational factors — by what a person knew, or thought she knew, about the object at hand.^^^所以話其實冇嘢係天生就核突就令人反感，只不過經過腦嘅想象同聯想嘅結果
In Philadelphia — as in many American cities — there was a problem with kids’ learning to read. Eager to discover why, Rozin parked himself in elementary-school classes and observed something strange: A large number of children were unable to read by second grade, but those same children were always fluent in spoken English. They could name thousands of objects, and they could point to Rozin and ask, “Why is this strange man lurking in my classroom?” Compared with the vast dictionary of words filed neatly in their brains, mastering an alphabet of 26 letters would seem to be a piece of cake. Instead, it was a crisis. With a collaborator, Rozin devised an experimental curriculum that moved children through degrees of linguistic abstraction by teaching them Chinese logographs followed by a Japanese syllabary, and only then applying the same logic to English. Rozin says the system worked like a dream, but the school’s response was tepid.
“The bureaucracy, the politics — I was overwhelmed,” he said. Nothing about the process of pitching and marketing and lobbying appealed to him. He calculated that it would take years to sell administrators on the curriculum and train teachers to deliver it. Instead, he and a colleague wrote several papers with the findings and walked away. “It’s the right way to teach reading,” he said nearly 50 years later, with a shrug. “As far as I know, nothing happened with it.” At the time, he wondered if maybe some other researchers would run with the idea.
“Part of disgust is the very awareness of being disgusted, the consciousness of itself,” the scholar William Ian Miller wrote in 1997. “Disgust necessarily involves particular thoughts, characteristically very intrusive and unriddable thoughts about the repugnance of that which is its object.” In other words, you can’t be disgusted without knowing that you’re disgusted. Relatedly, there’s no unambiguous evidence that nonhuman animals experience disgust. Distaste, yes. Dislike, yes. But the capacity to be disgusted is, as Miller put it, “human and humanizing.” Those with ultrahigh thresholds are those whom “we think of as belonging to somewhat different categories: protohuman like children, subhuman like the mad or suprahuman like saints.”
If the initial function of disgust was like a piece of caution tape plastered over our mouths, the tape had — over time — wound itself around our other holes (to regulate sexual activity) and our minds (to regulate moral activity). This potency of the emotion is such that a single anecdote can taint an entire presidential campaign.^^^當我哋認為有啲行為or觀念好核突or噁心嘅時候，就知道佢的而且確影響到我哋嘅政治生活
He pointed to the paradox that disgusting things often hold a “curious enticement”.
One of Rozin’s greatest coinages is “benign masochism,” which describes any experience that is pleasurable not despite being unpleasant but because of its unpleasantness.
The idea is that these experiences offer a similar excitement, in that they cause fear or pain or repulsion without posing any real existential threat. Our ability to withstand “safe” menaces yields a gratifying sense of mastery.
My personal mother lode of benign masochism — and perhaps yours, in the near future — is the F.D.A.’s “Food Defect Levels Handbook,” which is designed for food manufacturers but is available online for anyone to browse, which I do often. It outlines the amount of disgusting matter in a given food that will trigger enforcement action — meaning that any less is just fine. Commercially produced peanut butter, the site will tell you, is allowed to contain anything fewer than 30 insect fragments and one rodent hair per 100 grams. A can of mushrooms may house fewer than 20 maggots. Fewer than a quarter of salt-cured olives in a package may be moldy. A clever entrepreneur could establish a weight-loss program entirely on the basis of alerting people to the larvae and dry rot and beetle eggs that adulterate their favorite foods. But who wants to live that way? The best bulwark against disgust — the only bulwark against so much of life’s wretchedness — is, in the end, denial.
We need more studies to tell us why. But for young people, computer games, increasing social media use, video games—something is replacing that time. During that period from 2009 to 2018, different types of social media emerged. This is always evolving, especially for younger people.
Sexuality is such an important part of life, and understanding changes that occur matters to how we understand what is shifting about the human experience. We know that sexual activity can help people to relax, fall asleep, reduce stress, feel intimate and connected and thereby improve their relationships—and may even help to boost their immune system. And sex can also just be fun, pleasurable and joyful—a way to express oneself in vulnerable ways. Sexual health is multidimensional and not just about the presence or absence of infections or disease but about the potential for pleasure, access to accurate information about sexuality, bodily autonomy and ability to have sexual experiences that are free from violence or coercion.
Washington Post: In Africa, drinking water was scarce for them. Now they’re helping fight the global crisis with their own bottles.
As they started settling into their new lives, the water crisis in their home countries loomed large in their minds. Millions of Africans, as well as countless others around the world, lack access to safe drinking water, mainly because of inadequate infrastructure.
That’s why “it’s critical for us to tell our stories,” Jibicho said. “People typically see numbers and they don’t really know what that means. Those numbers are real people.”
^^^numbers are real people，重要嘅事情從不會重複得過多
Didomi works with WaterIsLife, an international nonprofit organization that provides clean drinking water to people around the world. Didomi donates half of its proceeds directly to WaterIsLife, which makes clean water readily available through programs such as building wells and implementing filtration systems in schools and communities.
1951年10月15號，<山东省人民法院滕县分院 纠正丰县法院对婚姻案件的错误判决 朱树人等滥用职权维护封建婚姻制度应作深刻检讨>就提到徐州豐縣，當時係歸山東管，而家歸江蘇，可見歷史悠久。。呢個先係問題嘅所在，黑手有幾大？你話呢，你話你要唔要關心？佢其實離我哋唔遠，如果我哋唔做嘢，話唔定我哋識嘅人或者身邊嘅人就會出事
Is the American dream never having to go outside? I thought of this in the long walk through the Bellagio back to my hotel room, which distorted my sense of just where the hell I was; signs led the way to corridors and trams to other hotels, with other restaurants, bars, and casinos I could enjoy without ever having to step onto a street.
I did go outside, because it is one of the great joys of being alive to experience a place you’ve never seen before.
^^^actually, if we feel satisfied with this "easy and convenient" lifestyle, we'll end up losing the oppotunity to see and feel our nearby and the big world.
It’s through a combination of some exploitative labor practices and crafty salesmanship that the idea of cutting labor seems like the natural future for restaurants. During the conference, the ongoing trend of food service workers rethinking jobs that have provided them with low wages and no benefits was euphemistically referred to as things like a “scarcity of drivers,” “labor problems,” and “cost pressures.” And, like with most businesses, workers were mostly framed as a liability rather than an asset. Like, at least Las Vegas is a union town.
At best, drones and apps lead to a sort of fully automated luxury communism, a world in which most labor is automated, leaving humans to leisure and enjoyment. But for that to exist, you need the communism to come before the automation. Apps and automation may create an opportunity for restaurant owners to treat their workers better, but they don’t require it. As it stands, without something like a universal basic income, automation becomes a loophole to pay fewer people. It also assumes restaurant owners would use surplus profits to bolster wages for the remaining workers, which is a bold assumption. While there is evidence that wages are going up for food service workers, it is largely in response to workers refusing to work for anything less, and restaurant owners acquiescing because they need to stay in business. If a restaurant owner decides to pocket the extra cash and pay their workers a minimum wage that is nothing close to a living wage, that’s their choice. The company that lets it deliver food via drone has no skin in that game.
While Edelman found that trust had declined across institutions as a whole, overall there was less faith in government and media, while more people had confidence in businesses and NGOs.
The report authors said that the survey revealed, "a vicious cycle of distrust fuelled by government and media".
"This vicious cycle of distrust threatens societal stability," they said. "It’s a death grip where media is chasing clicks and government is chasing votes, both feeding a cycle of disinformation and division and exploiting it for commercial and political gain."
Dr Michael Lewis, a reader from Cardiff University’s school of psychology and an expert in faces, said research carried out before the pandemic had found that medical face masks reduced attractiveness because they were associated with disease or illness.
“We wanted to test whether this had changed since face coverings became ubiquitous and understand whether the type of mask had any effect,” he said.
“Our study suggests faces are considered most attractive when covered by medical face masks. This may be because we’re used to healthcare workers wearing blue masks and now we associate these with people in caring or medical professions. At a time when we feel vulnerable, we may find the wearing of medical masks reassuring and so feel more positive towards the wearer.”
Dinielli went on, “The Justices sit literally above where the lawyers are. For these people to do the job they were tasked with, they have to maintain that level. But this degrades it, mocks it, and threatens it.” He warned, “Since the Court doesn’t have an army, it relies on how it behaves to command respect. Once the veneer cracks, it’s very hard to get it back.”
In the meantime, though, the country's experience a century ago suggests that we could be in for a lot more pain - especially if we let our guard down.
The 1918 flu lasted far beyond 1918. Two years after it began, just as officials such as Copeland were declaring victory and cities were easing restrictions, a fourth wave hit parts of the country, bringing punishing caseloads that pushed some hospitals to the brink of collapse and left many more Americans dead.
Local governments' public health interventions actually may have contributed to the fourth wave by limiting the virus's spread in prior waves. Letting the virus run rampant, however, would not have been advisable either, said Wan Yang, an assistant professor of epidemiology at Columbia University and an author of the paper on New York City influenza mortality. "More infection could also lead to more mutation, so that could generate a new virus variant that can then erode your prior immunity, so it's an interplay depending on how the virus is going to evolve, which is really unpredictable," Yang said.
^^^所以都幾困難，放任完全唔理會係冇可能嘅，呢種係完全唔人道嘅做法，從各方面帶嚟嘅損失都係最大；而管制呢，又唔可以太快鬆懈，雖然後來都會back to normal，但都要謹慎行事以免另一波發生；所以應該一直管制？如果管理嘅係家禽就無所謂，如果係人，就要考慮到人嘅代價，自由嘅代價，被當成人嘅價值
Influenza viruses and coronaviruses are genetically different, so it's not possible to make a one-to-one comparison with the 1918 pandemic. Yang noted that the novel coronavirus appears to mutate far faster than the 1918 influenza virus. Management of the current pandemic also has benefited from many scientific developments that were not available a century ago, including more-sanitary hospital conditions, better access to clean water, and - perhaps what is most notable - a vaccine.
How Telegram Became the Anti-Facebook